Written By: Runjhun Sharma
Hierarchy of Courts and Judges in India
In Indian Judiciary System, the Judges have a hierarchy according to which they are seated in the respective courts.
The Judges at different levels have different powers and functions. The higher the judges are seated, the more is their power.
Indian Courts are in a Hierarchy for smooth functioning and to remove the pendency of cases. Had there been only one court for the country i.e. the Supreme Court then it would have been very burdensome. Therefore, not just every state has a High Court but every district or two has a District & Sessions Court to deal with cases on every level and to decrease the burden of courts.
Courts in India
The hierarchy of Courts in India is quite known but for the sake of it, are mentioned below-
- Supreme Court also known as the Apex Court of India, is the highest court of the country.
- High Court. Every state in India consists of a High Court which deals with the cases of that particular state.
- District Court or Sessions Court are the courts of the district which deals with the cases in the lowest level.
SUPREME COURT: The country consists of one Supreme Court which is supreme and higher than the High Courts. It is at the top in Decoding the Hierarchy of Courts in India. It is the responsibility of the Apex Court to administer justice all over India. The total no. of judges in Supreme Court can be 30-34, including the Chief Justice of India. The presiding officers of the Supreme Court is known as Justice and not judges or magistrate.
Judges Bench: As per Article 124 of the Indian Constitution, the Supreme Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and until Parliament by law appoints a larger number, not more than 7 other judges. The strength of Judges in Supreme Court is 34, including the Chief Justice of India.
There are three types of Benches in the Supreme Court:
- Division Bench: A bench of 2 judges is called a Division Bench.
- Full Bench: A bench of 3 or 5 judges is known as a Full Bench.
- Constitutional Bench: A bench of 7 or more judges is called a Constitutional Bench.
In its 70 year of history, the Supreme Court has only authorised 17 nine-judges bench judgements. The largest bench that has ever adjudicated on a case, is 13, in the matter of Kesavananda Bharti v State of Kerela in 1973.
Supreme Court deals with three jurisdictions–
Original, Appellate and Advisory Jurisdictions.
- Its original jurisdiction extends to any dispute arising between the government and states.
- Enforcement of Fundamental Rights as per Article 32 of the Indian Constitution.
- The Supreme Court can direct transfer of cases from one high court to another or from a subordinate court to a higher court.
- May withdraw any case pending in the High Court and can dispose it off itself.
- When any one of the party of the case is not satisfied with the order passed by the High Court, then such order can be pointed out and presented in the Supreme Court.
- When the case involves a substantial question of law or of general importance.
- When the High Court is of the opinion that the case is a fit for an appeal in the Supreme Court.
- The Supreme Court has an advisory jurisdiction on any matter specifically referred to it by the President of India under Article 143 of the Constitution.
- The President can obtain the advice of the Supreme Court if any question of law or fact arises.
- The Supreme Court has been provided the power to refuse to give an opinion on the matter.
HIGH COURT: Each state consists of one High Court. High Courts administer justice in India at State level. Article 214 to 231 of the Indian Constitution deals with the provisions of the High Court. The record of judgements of High Courts can be used by Subordinate Courts for deciding cases. The presiding officers of the High Court are known as Justice and not judges or magistrate. Article 145(3) of the Indian Constitution allows the High Court to form benches. High Courts can form a Divisional Bench, a Full Bench and a Constitutional Bench (which can be rarely seen).
High Courts deal with two jurisdictions–
Original and Appellate Jurisdiction
- The High Court has the Original Jurisdiction to issue writs in order to enforce fundamental rights.
- Election Petitions can be heard by High Court.
- Civil matters with the higher case amounts (varies from state to state) can be heard by the High Court.
- An appeal can be made to the High Court against a District Court’s decision.
- The power to review a matter of the subordinate court lies with the High Court.
- If the High Court certifies that the case involves a substantial question of law or fact.
DISTRICT or SESSIONS COURT: The court of the district that deals with civil matters are known as District Court while the court of the district that deals with criminal matters are known as Sessions Court. District and Sessions Courts administer justice in India at district level. District Courts have two jurisdictions- Original and Appellate Jurisdiction. The presiding officers of the District & Sessions Courts are referred as Judges/Magistrate.
Presiding Officers in Civil matters are referred to as Judge while the Presiding Officers in Criminal matters are referred to as Magistrate. The power and functions of both Judge and Magistrate are the same, only the nature of matters they deal with are different.
The district court has appellate jurisdiction over all subordinate courts situated in the district, both civil or criminal matters.
All the matters of the subordinate courts are to be appealed in the District Court including matters of civil as well as criminal nature.
Hierarchy of Judges in India.
The Indian judiciary is a hierarchical system, with various levels of judges presiding over different types of cases. The hierarchy of judges in India can be broadly categorized into four levels: district judges, high court judges, Supreme Court judges, and the Chief Justice of India.
- District Judges: District judges are the lowest level of judges in the Indian judiciary, and are appointed by the state governments. They preside over cases in the district courts, which are the lowest level of courts in India. District judges handle both civil and criminal cases, and can impose punishments up to a maximum of seven years imprisonment.
- High Court Judges: High court judges are appointed by the President of India, and they preside over cases in the high courts. The high courts are the second highest level of courts in India, and are located in each state of the country. High court judges handle appeals from the lower courts, and also have original jurisdiction in certain types of cases. They can impose punishments up to a maximum of life imprisonment.
- Supreme Court Judges: Supreme Court judges are the highest level of judges in India, and are appointed by the President of India. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country, and hears appeals from the high courts as well as original cases. Supreme Court judges can impose punishments up to a maximum of life imprisonment.
- Chief Justice of India: The Chief Justice of India is the highest judicial position in India, and is appointed by the President of India. The Chief Justice presides over the Supreme Court, and is responsible for the overall administration of the Indian judiciary.
In addition to these four levels, there are also specialized courts in India, such as family courts, consumer courts, and labor courts, which are presided over by judges with specific expertise in those areas.
The hierarchy of judges in India plays a crucial role in ensuring the proper functioning of the judicial system, and in ensuring justice for all citizens of the country.